Explore the 7 pivotal functions of High Courts in India

Explore the 7 pivotal functions of High Courts in India

Unmasking India's High Courts: An Intriguing Exploration of the Power Players Shaping the Nation's Legal Landscape.

High Courts in India are often considered the backbone of the country's judicial system. These courts play a crucial role in upholding the principles of justice, safeguarding fundamental rights, and ensuring the proper functioning of the legal framework. Let us explore the seven pivotal functions of High Courts in India and understand their significance in maintaining a fair and equitable society.

Here is a list of India's 25 High Courts, along with their dates of establishment and jurisdictions:

High Court Location Established Jurisdiction
Allahabad High Court Allahabad 17 March 1866 Uttar Pradesh
Andhra Pradesh High Court Amaravati 1 January 2019 Andhra Pradesh
Bombay High Court Mumbai 14 August 1862 Maharashtra and Goa
Calcutta High Court Kolkata 1 July 1862 West Bengal
Chhattisgarh High Court Bilaspur 1 November 2000 Chhattisgarh
Delhi High Court New Delhi 31 October 1966 Delhi
Gauhati High Court Guwahati 1 March 1948 Assam, Nagaland, Mizoram, and Arunachal Pradesh
Gujarat High Court Ahmedabad 1 May 1960 Gujarat
Himachal Pradesh High Court Shimla 25 January 1971 Himachal Pradesh
Jammu and Kashmir High Court Srinagar and Jammu 26 March 1928 Jammu and Kashmir
Jharkhand High Court Ranchi 15 November 2000 Jharkhand
Karnataka High Court Bangalore 1 July 1884 Karnataka
Kerala High Court Kochi 1 July 1948 Kerala
Madhya Pradesh High Court Jabalpur 1 November 2000 Madhya Pradesh
Madras High Court Chennai 15 August 1862 Tamil Nadu
Manipur High Court Imphal 15 January 1972 Manipur
Meghalaya High Court Shillong 19 January 2013 Meghalaya
Orissa High Court Cuttack 1 January 1948 Odisha
Patna High Court Patna 14 February 1916 Bihar
Punjab and Haryana High Court Chandigarh 15 November 1966 Punjab and Haryana
Rajasthan High Court Jodhpur 25 January 1949 Rajasthan
Sikkim High Court Gangtok 25 March 2017 Sikkim
Telangana High Court Hyderabad 1 January 2019 Telangana
Tripura High Court Agartala 1 March 1948 Tripura
Uttarakhand High Court Nainital 20 January 2000 Uttarakhand

Please note that this list is subject to change, as new High Courts may be created or existing High Courts may be reorganized.

Check out this insightful blog post on India's High Courts and discover the power players behind the scenes!


1. Ensuring Judicial Independence

High Courts act as custodians of judicial independence in India. They play a crucial role in ensuring that the judiciary remains independent from undue influence or interference from the executive or legislative branches of the government. This independence is essential for upholding the rights and liberties of citizens and protecting the principles of justice.


2. Appellate Jurisdiction

One of the primary functions of High Courts is to serve as appellate bodies for cases decided by lower courts. High Courts have the authority to review decisions made by subordinate courts and tribunals. This function plays a vital role in correcting errors of law or fact and ensures that justice is delivered fairly.


3. Writ Jurisdiction

High Courts in India possess the power to issue writs, which are court orders primarily used for the protection of fundamental rights. The ability to issue writs, such as habeas corpus, mandamus, prohibition, certiorari, and quo warranto, highlights the influence of High Courts in safeguarding the enforcement of constitutional rights. This power serves as a crucial safeguard against any infringement of citizens' fundamental rights.


4. Judicial Review

A significant function of High Courts is to exercise judicial review. They are the final authority to examine the constitutionality of laws, both central and state. Judicial review ensures that legislation is in accordance with the provisions of the Indian Constitution. High Court judgments on constitutional matters serve as precedents and have a profound impact on shaping the legal landscape of the country.

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5. Administrative Control

High Courts also exercise administrative control over lower courts and tribunals within their jurisdiction. They supervise the functioning of these courts and tribunals to ensure efficient and effective delivery of justice. By keeping a check on the performance and conduct of lower courts, High Courts play a crucial role in maintaining the integrity of the judicial system.


6. Determining State Laws' Constitutionality

High Courts have the authority to examine the constitutionality of state laws. They play a crucial role in maintaining the harmony between state legislation and the Indian Constitution. If a state law is found to be in conflict with the constitution, High Courts have the power to strike it down. This function ensures that the principles enshrined in the constitution prevail over any conflicting state laws.


7. Protecting Human Rights

High Courts actively engage in protecting human rights and promoting social justice in India. They address numerous cases related to the violation of fundamental rights and take measures to safeguard the interests of citizens. In landmark cases, High Courts have played a pivotal role in ensuring justice and protecting the rights of marginalized communities, thereby shaping a more inclusive society.

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High Courts in India hold immense power and responsibility. Their pivotal functions, such as ensuring judicial independence, serving as appellate bodies, exercising writ jurisdiction and judicial review, and maintaining administrative control, define the backbone of India's legal system. These functions collectively contribute to upholding the principles of justice, protecting fundamental rights, and promoting equality in society. The continued role of High Courts in safeguarding the rights and liberties of citizens is crucial for building a fair and equitable India.


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